Have a problem with your scoot? Check here for commonly asked questions.
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SIDE PANELS POPPING OFFIt's not uncommon for side panels to fit so loosely that they actually eject while you're driving downt the road. Here are a few things that are important to help prevent this:
- The rolled edge of the panel that meets the frame should be in an even plane all the way around. In other words, if you lay it on the floor it should sit perfectly flat. If it's at all "tacoed" then you need to straighten it out.
- Lambretta side panels can start to fit loosely if they get flattened out. This can make the front lower edge of the panel not sit in the groove. Gently put a little more bend in the panel down near the bottom edge where it curves in to meet the frame, and it should fit more snugly. Don't bend it too far or it will kink.
- Your scoot's frame may be pushed in at the rear. If so, try pulling it out with a come-along or by putting it on a workbench and wedging a long 2"x4" between the frame and rear tire and giving it a good yank.
SERIES 3 SIDE PANEL BUFFER INSTALLATIONThis pertains to the difficulty of installing the later type Series 3 side panel buffers with the metal clips inside without tearing up either the rubber buffer or your fresh new paint job. First put a little dish soap inside the buffer, then work the spring through the buffer, starting with the end of the spring which has a right angle at the end. Now put a strip of flexible plastic (a 1" x 4 " strip cut from an old margarine tub will work great) on the front side of the frame where the clip will slide on. Pry the spring open and slide it in position over the strip of plastic. The plastic will help it slide on and protect your paint. After it's all the way on, pull out the plastic strip and you're done.
CARBURETOR AND JETTING ISSUES
See our Mikuni jetting chart here
MIKUNI JETTING - GENERAL
First of all before doing any jetting adjustments, you must make sure that your ignition timing is correct, that your compression is good, and that your engine has no air leaks. You can make sure your engine is air tight by spraying carb cleaner where the carb meets the manifold and at all cylinder gasket joints with the engine idling. If the idle changes you have found an air leak. Once you know that your engine meets all of these creteria, make some temporary marks on the hand grip and the handlebar casting to indicate closed throttle, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, and full throttle. Install the largest main jet included in the carb kit and ride the bike once through the gears at full throttle. If it stutters and smokes you need to fit a smaller main jet. If the main jet is much too large the engine won't even rev out at full throttle. Keep working your way down in jet size until you have found the largest jet that will let it rev out cleanly. Now do a "plug chop" to test your main jet (check your plug color after a full throttle blast through the gears followed by an instant killing of the motor). You want a milk chocolate color if the engine is being broken in, and a coffee with cream color after breaking in. A short burst through the gears won't hurt an engine that isn't broken in, but don't overdo it, and let it cool somewhat between tests to prevent overheating and possible seizure.
After getting the main jet dialed in, set up the needle by driving the bike at a constant cruising speed and rolling the throttle on and off between 1/4 and 3/4 throttle. Stuttering and a "rat-a-tat-tat" sound at around in this throttle range indicates a needle setting that is too rich, in which case you should lower the needle by raising the clip one notch. Momentary bogging (or in extreme cases stalling out or even backfiring) in this range indicates a lean condition, which is improved by dropping the clip one notch to raise the needle. It is the gap between the needle and the atomizer which determines how rich or lean the engine is running at part throttle, so it stands to reason that a thinner needle will be richer than a thicker one. Furthermore, some needles are thicker or thinner at various points, providing a variety of tuning options for different engine setups. It follows that a needle which is offering good performance at 1/4-1/2 throttle but is too rich at 3/4 throttle can be replaced with one which is thicker near the bottom in order to lean out the 3/4 area. The needles we provide with our kits are generally well suited for most Lambrettas, but occasionally a different taper is required and we stock many other variations. If the proper jetting cannot be achieved with ajustment of the needle, you may need to change the atomizer (NOTE: TMX carbs don't have a separate atomizer, it is cast into the carb body). These are available in a range from lean to rich with a numbering system that typically goes up through the alphabet from N through Q, followed by an even number for even more accuracy (for example P-6, P-8, Q-0, Q-2, and so on). Changing the atomizer has an even effect on the whole working range of the needle.
After dialing the needle and atomizer you now only need to find the correct pilot jet (or "idle" jet). Your goal here is to find a size of jet which will give you a smooth, even idle with the air screw 1 to 1-1/2 turns out, with a minimum of smoking. The pilot jet also has some effect on the way your engine behaves when you are decelerating with the throttle closed. If it bucks on deceleration and hesitates or coughs (or in extreme cases even backfires) when you then try to accelerate, it is too lean. If it stutters and spits and gets "loaded up" when you try to accelerate then it is too rich. This rich symptom is very similar to how your engine feels when you forget to turn off the choke after the engine has warmed up.
JETTING THE 28mm MIKUNI ON PISTON PORTED ENGINES (NO REED VALVE)It is very important on piston ported cylinders with the TM28 carb that the proper atomizer is being used. It should be of the 169 series (usually 169-P0), and the shield at the top should be trimmed down to 3 to 4mm (the lower it is trimmed the leaner your carburation will be in the 1/4 throttle range). These carbs come stock with a 175 series atomizer, which is only suitable for reed valve engines such those fitted with Imola or TS1 cylinder kits. We always supply the 169 series atomizer with the carb kit when we sell it for piston port use. It is also often necessary to raise the cutaway on the front side of the slide to about 4mm to clean up the jetting in the 1/4 throttle range. This can be done with a rotary flap wheel on a die grinder, being careful to mimick the arc of the original cutaway.
MIKUNI TM24 DETAILSThe 24mm Mikuni has many advantages over cheaper carbs such as a PWK knockoff, including genuine Japanese quality and a full range of readily available genuine Mikuni spare parts. Note that some Italian cylinder shrouds have a little scoop on top, right underneath where the carb sits, and this scoop partially obstructs the Mikuni from fitting correctly. A notch about the size of a quarter must be cut out of the scoop, which will have no effect on cooling. The stock airbox flows plenty of air for the larger carb, but the main restriction is in the air scoop under the seat. For maximum performance we recommend drilling four 3/8" holes in the bottom of the air box and cutting out the dividing wall inside the air scoop. Alternatively you could remove the whole airbox and run the GP hose and UNI filter using connector #0490.F.
JETTING A MIKUNI 35mm TMX CARB:
- The main jet is easy-just start big (for most engines around 380) and work your way down until the motor revs out all the way with full throttle applied. From there you can fine tune by checking plug color until you get a nice tan color. You will probably end up using a 260 to 300, but every motor is different!
- Adjusting the needle is very easy on the TMX because there is no atomizer to change, just different needles. The larger the suffix number on the needle, the leaner the needle is (a 6EN11-58 is leaner than a 6EN11-57). Most engines wiill use a 57 or 58, then adjust the clip position until you get the smoothest carburation at mid-throttle.
- TMX carbs often use small pilot jets, in the 20 to 30 range. Use a jet that gives you a clean idle with the mixture screw turned out 1/2 to 2 turns out. If the engine bucks and knocks when decelerating, the idle circuit is too lean and a larger jet should be fitted.
JETTING THE MIKUNI TM24 FLAT SLIDE CARBStart by installing the carb with the following settings: Needle: 4DH7, middle clip position Main Jet: Largest provided in kit Pilot Jet: Largest provided in kit With these settings the scooter should start and run fairly cleanly at low to mid revs. If necessary adjust the idle speed screw (the knob-like screw on the left side of the carb as you are looking at installed on the scooter) until you get a steady idle, and you're ready to start the fine tuning:
- Take the scooter for a spin and see what it does at full throttle through the gears. No need to wind it out all the way in 4th, just a quick blast up through the lower gears.
- If doesn't want to rev out cleanly at full throttle, take out the main jet and substitute the next smaller one.
- Repeat Step #1. Keep this up until you find a main jet that allows the engine to rev out cleanly at full throttle. NOTE: If the engine does rev out cleanly at full throttle with the largest jet we provided, you should acquire and install a larger range of jets to make sure that it's not too lean. It is much easier (and safer for the engine) to detect a rich situation than a lean one. We provide jets which in our experience cover the range needed for your particular engine setup, but sometimes the required jets fall outside of this range.
- After you have found the proper main jet for full throttle operation, take the scooter for another ride, but this time just cruise around using 1/4 to 3/4 of throttle opening. Roll the throttle back and forth within this range and check for surging and knocking on deceleration, followed by bogging on acceleration. These are signs of leanness, and you should raise the needle by dropping the clip down a notch at a time until the problem goes away. On the other hand, if the scooter decelerates smoothly but then stutters and hiccups on acceleration and only clears out after holding the throttle open for a while, the needle needs to be leaned out by raising the clip. This rich situation will also be evidenced by a lot of wet black residue coming from the exhaust. Occasionally the range of five clip positions will not give satisfactory results. If you cannot get the midrange lean enough, a leaner atomizer (also known as the "needle jet" or "nozzle") is needed. Conversely if you cannot get the midrange rich enough, a richer atomizer can be fitted. Contact us for further assistance if this occurs. (NOTE: TMX carbs have no atomizer, but a leaner or richer needle is all that is needed.)
- Once the needle and atomizer are dialed in, all that is left is dial in the pilot jet (or "idle jet") and the idle mixture screw. The process is similar to dialing in the needle, but you cruise around slowly with the throttle barely cracked open, rolling back and forth between about 1/8 throttle and throttle closed. The same symp toms for rich or lean conditions will arise with the throttle closed as they did when you were checking the needle. When you have found the right pilot jet the scooter will carburate smoothly when the throttle is just cracked open from idle, and the engine will idle smoothly with the idle mixture screw opened up 1/2 to 1-1/2 turns (the idle mixture screw is just behind the mouth of the carb on the right, inside a hollow opening which is at an upward angle). The final idle mixture setting can be achieved by backing out the mixture screw until the engine starts to falter, and then turning it back in until it smooths out.
CLUTCH AND TRANSMISSION
FLYWHEEL TAPER DAMAGEIf your scooter has been ridden for very long with the flywheel loose you may have enough damage to your crankshaft that no flywheel is going to stay on properly without vibrating off again. Once there is pitting to 50% or more of the portion of the crank taper that contacts the flywheel, it becomes very unlikely that the flywheel will stay on, especially on high performance engines. This is even more true if the woodruff key slot is widened out. An occasional problem with Indian flywheels is the rivets that hold the center cam in place coming loose, and the best choice by far is to just replace it. When flywheels are manufactured, the rivets are all stamped at once with a huge hydraulic press, probably at 100 tons of pressure or more. This assures even pressure on all of the rivet heads. Then the flywheel is finish machined and balanced, assuring a perfectly balanced unit. If the rivets are redone one at a time, assuming the job is done right the flywheel still must be re-balanced, and this is fairly costly considering a new flywheel is relatively inexpensive. Some shops weld the cam to new flywheels before they sell them, but we have not seen this problem enough to warrant this. I any case we only sell the best flywheels available from India (there are some pretty shoddy ones out there - especially for Li cranks) so this probably explains our good success rate.
ELECTRICAL ISSUES - IGNITION
GENERAL IGNITION TIMING THEORYA general rule for optimum performance is that ignition timing should be set to the maximum amount of advance that will not cause overheating, knocking or pinging on acceleration. However, in the interest of reliability it is always best to err on the side of caution and set your timing conservatively. Pinging sounds like a bunch of marbles rattling around in your cylinder. It usually occurs under load, and almost always coincides with a lack of power and a sluggish feeling as you try to accelerate. Knocking is an even more noticeable clunking sensation coming from the engine, and usually occurs at lower revs under severe loads. The correct timing for most standard engines with points ignition systems is 23 degrees before top dead center. Standard engines with electronic ignition should be set to 21 degrees before top dead center, and engines fitted with a cylinder kit and electronic ignition and running 91 octane pump fuel should be set in the range of 18 degrees before top dead center, plus or minus a degree.
SPARK FAILURE TESTING FOR POINTS TYPE IGNITION SYSTEMS
(*SEE NOTE BELOW FOR MACHINES WITH DUCATI 4 POLE SYSTEMS WITH A PINK WIRE COMING FROM THE STATOR)
When checking for spark, always check it at the end of the plug wire (after removing the cap from the end of the wire). Hold the bare wire about 1/4" from the engine case and look and listen for a fat blue spark which will easily jump this distance. This will eliminate the possibility of a faulty plug or cap. Note that Lambrettas are very sensitive to spark plug gap, and the correct setting for points ignitions is .020" or .5mm. It is a very good idea to get a spark plug gapping tool just for this purpose. Also note that under no conditions should a resistor type plug cap be used. These put more load on the ignition system and can cause premature condensor failure. We have worked on many, many scooters with NGK resistor type plug caps fitted, probably because they are readily available at most motorcycle shops. They are easily spotted by the white NGK letters on top, and should be avoided. Original Piaggio Vespa caps with the metal shrouding are also resistor type, so avoid them as well. We sell a non-resistor NGK cap without the lettering, as well as original equipment type caps.
Next, double check all wiring connections including ground wires (such as from engine to frame). You can bypass the whole wiring harness of the scooter by disconnecting the green wire from both the coil and the junction and running a temporary connection between the green wire from the stator and the positive side of the coil (usually marked "II" or "15"). If you are still not getting spark and all of your external connections look good, check the AC voltage out of the green (ignition) circuit from the stator. Hook up a volt meter to the green wire out of your stator. You should get about 1.5 to 2.0 volts AC at kickover speed with the spark plug removed. If the reading is too low you may have a weak flywheel. If it is too high you probably have a bad primary ignition coil on the stator. If you get no output at all, there is either a break or short in the green wire itself, or the in wiring that connects the points and condensor to the primary coil on the stator. This can include a break in the portion of the primary ignition coil winding that is grounded to the stator.
If you have the proper voltage, the next thing required to make spark is that the points break the electrical field when they open. You can test this by putting one of our timing testers or an ohm meter on the green wire and opening and closing the points - either manually with the flywheel removed or by rotating the flywheel slowly if it is installed. When the points are closed you should have full continuity (no beep from the tester or an infinite reading on the meter), and when they are open the resistance should rise, causing the tester to beep or the meter to show a noticeable increase in resistance. If the points fail the closed test, either they are not making good contact when closed (new points have a coating on them which you can remove with a small file or a strip of fine sandpaper), or you have not wired things up correctly. If they fail the open test you have shorted out the green circuit (check that the wires are not pinched between the back side of the stator and the engine case) or improperly installed the wires to the points. The spring steel portion of the points must be isolated from the solid steel base of the points by fiber or plastic insulators, and the wires must contact only the spring steel and not the base. Set the points gap when fully open to .014"-.018" and make small adjustments to the gap and/or the position of the stator plate to acheive the proper ignition timing for your machine.
If you pass all of the above tests you can try substituting a new condensor (any one will do just for testing purposes). In some cases you can just connect a condensor externally to the green circuit on the coil or junction block and this bring your spark back. However, if the old condensor is still in the stator and it has shorted out, you will not get spark unless you first disconnect it. If a known working condensor still doesn't do it, try replacing the ignition coil with a new or known working one. For more in depth help on this topic, consult the Lambretta Home Workshop Manual.
SPARK ISSUES WITH 4 POLE NON BATTERY DUCATI SYSTEMS
Note that this issue pertains only to late Series 2 and early Series 3 machines with green/brown/pink wiring coming from the stator plate. Stators with green/brown/blue wiring do not have this problem.
All 4 pole stators have two coils mounted parellel to each other. The coil with the thinner guage windings is the ignition coil, which always has the green wire connected to the outer end of its windings. On most systems the inner end of the windings is soldered to the base of the coil to ground it. However, on the systems with a pink wire, the inner end of the windings is connected to the pink wire rather than to ground. Therefor the primary ignition coil is not grounded (and no spark can ocurr) unless the pink wire is grounded. The pink wire plugs into the junction box and is connected to two more pink wires from the main wiring harness which are crimped together in one bullet connector. One of these wires goes to the brake light switch and the other goes to the brake light filament of the taillight bulb (note that this is always the thicker filament in the bulb). When you are driving without your foot on the brake pedal, the ignition circuit is grounded through the brake light switch to the frame. When you step on the brake pedal, the switch is no longer grounded. The ignition circuit instead now grounds through the brake light bulb, lighting up the bulb.
It follows that if your brake light switch is not functioning, your brake light will be constantly lit when the engine is running. If your brake light filament is also burned out, you will have no spark. Conversly, if your brake light filament is burned out but your brake light switch is functioning, your scooter will run until you step on the brakes, and then the engine will die. Also note that poor connections or broken wires in the pink circuit can also cause any or all of these symptoms. Another thing to consider is the ground between the taillight body and the frame. This is especially important on freshly painted scooters, where the taillight mounting studs and/or ground wire may not make good contact with the frame unless you scrape away some paint on the frame.
SERVETA MISFIRINGThe points and condensor in Servetas are pretty hardy, and often a points gap adjustment is all that's needed. If the stator hasn't been moved since the last tuneup then it's safe to adjust the gap to .014" and assume that the timing will not be too advanced. If you find that the gap is currently less than .014" this could be the problem. Also check the engine to frame ground wire. This is very important on Servetas, because the throttle and gear cable pulleys are plastic and there is very little to ground the engine to the frame other than the clutch and rear brake cables. Serveta ignition coils are also prone to fail if someone has trimmed length off the plug wire and it gets pulled too tight. The wire can be extended by soldering on a new section of wire and covering the joint with several layers of shrink tube. We carry the black plastic non resistor NGK caps if you need one, they are excellent. Good luck!
DUCATI SIX POLE PROBLEMSIf you are having problems with a six pole Ducati system, you can look at these systems in one of two ways-either they just suck, or they are so strong that they keep running even when everything is going wrong with them. Anyhow, here are the things you need to check:
- Points gap should be .014"-.018". If you do not know if the points have not been replaced recently, replace them and the condensor as well. This will require a flywheel puller and a soldering gun.
- Ignition timing should be set at 23 degrees before top dead center for stock engines, less for modified engines. Consult a manual for more information on this topic if you are unsure about how to do this.
- The primary ignition circuit (the green wire coming out of the stator) should put out about 1.5-2.0 volts AC at kickover speed with the spark plug removed. If the reading is consistently more than 2 volts, replace the primary coil on the stator.
- Try a known working ignition coil in place of your old one.
- Ducati 6 pole flywheels are known to demagnetize. If your are seeing consistent voltage readings of less than 1.5 volts AC, and all of the above checks don't fix your problem, we offer remagnetized flywheels on an exchange basis.
ELECTRICAL ISSUES - LIGHTING
TAIL LIGHT WIRING - ALL MODELS
Your harness should have a black wire for tail (running) light, and a pink wire for brake light. These go to the bulbholder (some bulbholders are marked with a pink and a black dot where the wires go) and the power then finds its way into the bulb through the two contacts on the end of the bulb. If you can't determine which way the wires go, hook them up and check that the brake circuit power is getting to the thicker gauge filament in the bulb, and that conversely the taillight power is going to the thinner filament. In addition, there should be a ground wire (often black, not to be confused with the black power wire from the harness) going from one of the taillight body mounting screws to the bulbholder.
BRAKE LIGHT ISSUES - 4 POLE DUCATI SYSTEMS WITH PINK WIRE FROM THE STATOR AND NO BATTERY
This issue is covered above in the ignition section.
WIRING HEADLIGHT JUNCTION - LIYou just have to remember that all of the sockets on the junction are just meeting points for similar colored wires (green to green, etc.). The exceptions are the red and blue headlight wires for high and low beam (yellow and blue on Servetas), the yellow wire for the pilot light on Italian models, and the white ground wire. These four wires must be in their correct locations, but all other wires just need to join with like colored wires from the harness or switch. Note that the junction that comes with many aftermarket headlights (our part # 504.G for the junction) has a pair of sockets marked red and blue below the actual headlight connections, which are the ones which make connection to the back of the bulb and which have both a round bullet receptacle and a male spade connection. These two pairs of sockets are not actually connected to the headlight bulb and can be used for other purposes if you wish.
BULB BLOWING IN 6 VOLT SYSTEMSThis problem can occur for several reasons, the first of which could be whether or not the speedo cable is attached properly to the front hub. If you are scratching your head at this point, read on...
The headlight, taillight, and speedo light on all Italian Lambrettas are powered by a brown wire coming out of the stator plate. The brake light, parking lights, and horn have their own power sources in most cases, depending on the model and whether or not the machine has a battery. The brown wire puts out about 35 watts of 6 volt AC power- 25 watts for the headlight bulb, 3-5 watts for the taillight bulb, and about 6 watts for the speedo bulb. This power is unregulated, which means that the power is fed directly through the switches and to the bulbs without anything to control its output. In other words, the faster the engine spins, the more power it puts out. This is why at low rpm (such as at idle) the lights are dim, and as the revs rise so does the brightness of the lights. Stock Lambretta engines rev to about 6,000rpm, and this is what limits the lighting output. If you build a higher revving performance engine without limiting the power being sent to the lights, your bulbs will burn out regularly. So this is one possible cause of the problem.
But what if your scooter is stock? Remember that there are three bulbs connected to the brown wire from the stator. If any one of these bulbs isn't working for one reason or another, the brown wire will still be cranking out 35 watts, and the remaining bulbs will be overloaded with power. Contrast this with a modern battery type system (such as what is in your car), where the battery stores the electrical power (in this case DC power). If you hook up a 5 watt bulb to the battery, the bulb will draw only 5 watts out whether the engine is running or not. If you hook up a 150 watt stereo system to the battery, it will draw 150 watts out, and so on. The battery stays charged as long as the engine is running, because the alternator and regulator sense when it is getting low on power and recharges it automatically.
So what does the speedo cable have to do with this? You may already have an idea. Because the speedo bulb shares the power delivered from the brown wire with the headlight and taillight, it must be connected and functioning to use its share of the power coming from the brown circuit. If not, the other bulbs will burn out. The speedo bulb is grounded through the speedo cable housing, which is attached to the front hub...do you see where I'm going with this? Check your cable to make sure it's tightly attached, and for an extra measure of safety you can even solder a separate ground wire to the outside of the speedo bulb socket and attach it to a grounded point inside the headset.
Other possibilities include poor grounding between the frame and engine case (make sure ground wire #19083120 is intact
One last possibility that will be more difficult to repair is a faulty brown circuit in your stator plate. The brown wire is connected to one coil inside 4 pole stators and two coils in 6 pole stators. When one or both of these coils starts to break down internally, the voltage they deliver can actually rise, causing bulb blowing. In this case replacing the coil(s) and/or complete stator is the only cure.
ENGINE REMOVAL - LI/SX/TV/GPHere are the steps (it's pretty easy):
- Remove the spark plug cap from the spark plug.
- Unplug the wires coming from the engine to the junction/regulator. They may be routed underneath the fuel tank, so you may need to loosen the tank straps.
- Turn the fuel valve off and pull the fuel line off the carb.
- Detach the throttle cable from the carb and unscrew the choke assembly (10mm wrench).
- Remove the four bolts holding the gear and clutch linkages from the engine (10mm socket). Pull back the rubber boot at the rear end of the flat gear shift linkage bar and remove the small circlip. Lift the bar off the post.
- Remove one of the engine pivot bolt nuts and give the bolt a smack with a heavy soft mallet. It should break free but don't drive it all the way out yet. NOTE: Sometimes the bolt gets stuck in the cones that sit between the case and the frame. Thread one of your shock absorber nuts on the engine bolt so that the top of the nut is even with the end of the bolt. Squirt some Liquid Wrench between the case and the frame and give the bolt a whack with a large soft faced mallet on the side which has the shock nut on it. The nut will keep the threads on the end of the bolt from getting damaged. Once the bolt moves you will be able to drive it out with a long implement such as a piece of 1/2" diameter aluminum or steel rod.
- Support the rear of the scooter's frame with a milk crate or jack stand and slide some wood blocks under the center stand to keep the scooter stable.
- Remove the rear shock absorber.
- Drive the engine mounting bolt the rest of the way out using a long bar small enough to pass all the way through as it displaces the bolt. When you have the bolt all the way out, you can then pull out the bar and let front of the engine down slowly. Installation is basically the reverse of the above. Before shipping you may want to remove the rear wheel and the exhaust system. When packaging the engine use either a wooden crate or two sturdy boxes, one inside the other with plenty of packing material between the two boxes.
FROZEN ENGINE BOLT REMOVAL
The bolt sometimes gets stuck in the cones that sit between the case and the frame. Thread one of your shock absorber nuts on the engine bolt so that the top of the nut is even with the end of the bolt. Squirt some Liquid Wrench between the case and the frame and give the bolt a whack with a large soft faced mallet on the side which has the shock nut on it. The nut will keep the threads on the end of the bolt from getting damaged. Once the bolt moves you will be able to drive it out with a long implement such as a piece of 1/2" diameter aluminum or steel rod.
LD TOP END REMOVAL TIPS
There is nothing particularly difficult about removing the cylinder assembly on an LD. First realize that because the cylinder is vertically positioned, it is highly likely that something (dirt, debris, tools, piston clips, etc.) will fall down into the crankcase unless you thoroughly clean the engine compartment first. It's also a good idea to stuff some rags down into the crankcase as soon as you have removed the cylinder to catch any of this debris.
You will also have to remove the gas tank, which will require loosening the lock ring (as well as tightening it upon reassembly). This can be done two ways (actually three if you count using the original Lambretta tool, which most people don't have, so we'll call it two):
1. Use a large "C" spanner as used on many motorcycle rear shock absorbers. These can often be found fairly cheaply at motorcycle shops, sometimes of the adjustable type. If you get a non-adjustable one it will need to be big enough to match or slightly exceed the diameter of the lock ring.
2. Use a hammer and punch. This may scar the notches in the lock ring. If this is OK with you, go for it.
Regarding piston removal, the wrist pin is usually a very tight fit in LD's. Once again you have two options:
1. You can buy a wrist pin pulling tool. We sell them for about $24.
2. You can remove it with a suitably sized round punch (something just slightly smaller than the wrist pin, which is 16mm on most LD/D models or 14mm on some early machines) if you support the piston so that you are not banging the crankshaft connecting rod sideways. This is best done with two people; one to hold the piston and one to tap on the pin. If you warm the piston up with a propane torch you may find that the wrist pin comes out much easier.
FRAME, CENTERSTAND, LOCKS
TOOL BOX LOCK REPLACEMENTFirst grind off the heads of the rivets. It's best to do this on the front of the door, because the door is steel and the rivet heads are soft aluminum. If you tgry to grind off the rivets on the inside of the door, you risk damaging the lock body, which is also aluminum. If you are doing a restoration, you can then clean up the lock body thoroughly and do paint and bodywork to the door without getting paint on the lock body. We also stock the aluminum rivets to reattach the lock afterwards, or you can use pop rivets.
CHROME LOCK RING REMOVAL
Of course first take out the set screw on the front of the frame tube. Put a long piece of pipe that will contact the inner lip of the ring into the frame tube from below, and then drive it out of the frame with a hammer. You may need to heat the frame a little with a propane torch to help it come out.
REPLACING KEYS FOR SPANISH SERVETA MODELS
The first question is do you know the code number of the oirginal key? It's imprinted on the original keys but not on the lock. If you still have an original key (or you made note of the key numbers before you lost them), we can usuallly supply a replacement. If you've lost your keys and you don't know the code number, then you have two options - either take the scooter (or just the switch) to a locksmith and have them reproduce a new key, or buy a new switch from us (item #0541.C).
FUEL AND LUBRICANTS
TRANS OIL PRIMERLambrettas need the same transmission oil as any modern two stroke dirt bike. The key is that both machines have what is called a "wet clutch", which means that the clutch plates are submerged in the transmission oil and therefor have some special needs when it comes to the type of oil that is used. Another factor which can complicate matters is that there are two viscosity scales for oil - the automotive scale and the transmission scale. The oil you need, which can be found at most motorcycle shops or through us, is going to be in the 80-90w range on the transmission oil scale (which corresponds to about 30-40w on the automotive scale - about the consistency of what you pour in your car's engine). The oil we sell is called Maxima MTL (Motorcycle Transmission Lubricant), which comes in an endurance version (85w) and a racing version (80w). This (and all other brands of MTL) has the correct additive package for your wet clutch. If you buy an automotive oil, it will not only rob power due to its heavy viscosity (it's about the consistency of honey), but it will have an additive package that will glaze up your clutch plates quickly and shorten their life.
TS1 OIL RECOMMENDATIONSYou should use a 32:1 mixture of a high quality 2 stroke oil (nothing with a chainsaw or outboard motor on the label). Use 2 stroke transmission lube in the tranny (approved for use with wet clutch systems, same thing used in most dirt bikes). We use Maxima MTL-E. There is no filter that will fit under the panel, but you can use a Uni foam or K&N paper element filter directly in the carb. You may have to downjet slightly if you put on a filter. Another option if you want to use your side panel without putting a hole in it is to clamp a piece of fine mesh screen over the carb.
OIL RATIOS - WHY 3% IS OKIf the oil you are using is a straight mineral oil I would not recommend going any lower than 5.1 oz per gallon (4%). However, with the newer blended or 100% synthetic oils, running at 3% will offer cleaner burning, reduced carbon buildup and reduced smoking. Remember that the less oil used, the thinner the viscosity of the fuel/oil mixture. This causes a slight richening of the carburation because this thinner mixture passes more easily through the jets. This richer condition tends to offset the lessened cooling and lubricating caused by the reduction in the amount of oil being used. When this effect is combined with the vast improvement in lubrication offered by today's high quality oils, it becomes much safer (and more economical) to run at lower fuel-to-oil ratios.
FUEL TO OIL MIXTUREWe recommend a 3% mixture, which is 4 oz. of oil for each gallon of gas. Use a name brand oil (we sell Torco & Motul, both excellent brands), and stay away from anything with pictures of lawn care equipment or outboard motors on the label. Use Premium fuel, the higher the octane the better. TIP: When refueling, turn off the fuel valve, pour the oil in your tank first and then add the gas. The two will mix as the fuel rushes in and you won't have to shake the scooter around to get the fuel mixed. The tank holds approximately two gallons, and the seam is about half way down, so if you look in the tank and the fuel is below the seam, you can add 4 oz. of oil and one gallon of gas. If you have gone on reserve, you will need a little over 1.5 gallons of fuel, so you can add 6 oz. of oil and 1.5 gallons of gas, and you will have nearly filled the tank.
HANDLEBAR, FORK & SPEEDO ISSUES
FORK RACE REMOVAL LI/SXThe bottom bearing race can be very difficult to remove. If it's not damaged I would leave it in place. The top one comes out by heating the frame with a propane torch and driving it out from inside the frame tube with a long bar and a hammer. If your frame is the early type with the chrome lock ring, drive the race out first (it's a separate part from the chrome ring), then remove the set screw in the front of the frame and drive the lock ring out.
INDIAN GP200 ENGINES
BRAKE SHOE & HUB FITTING PROBLEMSThe latest GP engine cases have a defect in the location of the brake shoe pivot pins. They are further apart than they should be, causing the brake shoes to not fit properly inside the drum unless modifications are made. Many people just remove some material from the linings of the shoes, but this is only a temporary fix until the next pair of shoes is installed. The best fix is to machine 1mm off the total thickness of the brake cam (.5mm each side). This is best done on a mill, but a disc sander or die grinder will do the job if care is taken to keep the surfaces flat and parallel. Remember that there is no difference in the inner diameter of the brake drum surface between GP rear hubs and all other Series 1/2/3 hubs, nor is there a difference in the working o.d. of GP brake shoes when used with a GP cam when compared to Li/SX brake shoes and an Li/SX cam. In other words, as long as you match the cam to the shoes you are using, you can use any type of drum you wish.
TV1 KICKSTART INSTALLWinding the kickstart spring is a knucklebusting pain in the ass. Put a phillips screwdriver through both the small hole near the center of the outer cover and the inner end of the spring. Wind the spring up inside the cover. Now try to put the inner cover inside the outer cover, stuffing the spring inside the lip of the inner cover. This is the fun part. Once you have the two covers assembled together, slide the whole thing over the shaft. Hook the inner end of the spring into the correct notch in the case by using the phillips screwdriver to guide the spring into the notch (you'll be able to tell which one it was in before; it's usually the lower right one). Put the circlip on the shaft. Now use a large screwdriver as a lever between the shaft and the small stud in the cover to prewind the spring. When you get it wound into position, slide the kickstart pedal on. When the pedal is on far enough, pull out the screwdriver and bolt the kickstart on. That's it, good luck!
MODEL IDENTIFICATION AND PRE-MOD VS. POST-MOD PARTS
KNOW YOUR MODELIt is very important that you know the year and model of your Lambretta before you order parts. Many parts are interchangeable between models produced way back in the late 1950's and the last Grand Prix models produced in India in the late 1990's. However, important differences sometimes exist between parts found on two Lambrettas of the same model which are only a year or two apart. The three basic families of Lambretta scooters are as follows. Bear in mind that many parts are interchangeable between the various models in each family, but rarely between models of different families:
I. FAMILY MODELS CHARACTERISTICS
- A. LD Family- LD Mk.I/II/III, D 4.00"x8" tires, tubular frame, turning front fender, vertical cylinder, 3 speed transmission
- B. Li Family - Li & TV Ser.I/II/III, SX, Serveta, GP(DL) 3.50"x10" tires, tubular frame, stationary front fender, horizontal cylinder, 4 speed transmission
- C. J Family - J50, J100, J125, Luna 3.00"x10" tires, pressed sheet steel frame, stationary front fender (except for J125 Super Starstream), vertical cylinder, 3 and 4 speed tranmission depending on model
II. SERIAL NUMBERSSerial numbers can be found in the following locations on various models. Note that the serial number is a five or six digit number which follows the model designation (For example Li150S*443267) and that the next group of numbers beginning with the letters "IGM" are merely Italian government commission numbers similar to Department of Transportation numbers in the USA.
- A. Li, TV, SX, GP and Serveta Models - The frame number is in the engine compartment on the right hand side of the main frame tube under the fuel tank. The engine number on all models except for TV175 Ser.I is on top of the motor directly in front of the shock mount and is somewhat hidden by the gear and clutch linkages. On the TV175 Ser.I it is on top of the motor behind the right hand motor mount.
- B. J Range - The frame number is on the right hand side of the frame in front of the shock absorber spring underneath the right hand side panel. The engine number is on top of the engine case, just behind the right hand engine mount.
- C. LD and D Models - The frame number is on the right hand side of the vertical frame tube directly in front of the rear wheel. The engine number is on top of the right hand side of the motor in front of the large oil filler plugs.
III. SPECIFIC MODELS COVERED IN OUR CATALOG
- A. Series III - Includes all Li125, Li150, Li150 Special, SX150, TV175, TV200, 200SX, Grand Prix 125/150/200 (also known as 125/150/200 DL) models produced after 1962. Most parts for these models are readily available, although some body parts are becoming scarce. Commonly called the Slimstyle Range, Series III models are distinguishable by a speedometer which is of a sort of clam shell shape. It is flat on the sides, tapering out larger at the top, and the top and bottom are rounded. Another distinguishable feature of the Series III is the separate horn grille which attaches vertically to the front of the horncasting with two countersink screws at the bottom. Li125 & Li150 models have a round headlight and rim, Grand Prix models have a rectangular headlight and rim, and all remaining Series III models have a round headlight with a hexagonal rim. The first Series III models produced in 1962 share several characteristics with earlier Series II models. When this is the case, the earlier variation of the part is called the pre-mod part. Mid-1960's models will often share pre- and post-mod features. By the end of the production run of Italian Series III models (which included all GP and SX models), all of the post-modification features (such as 6 pole ignition systems which have 4 wires coming from the magneto) had been adopted.
- B. Serveta Li150 Special and Jet 200 - Although considered Series III models, Spanish made Servetas have some unique traits. Generally, Series III parts are also applicable to Servetas unless otherwise stated in the catalog. Very early (1971-'72) models had many Innocenti traits including latches on the side panels, floor strips instead of mats, and a separate air box. Some parts are no longer available (i.e. the post-mod air filter), but in most cases it is desirable to replace obsolete Spanish parts (key switch, fuel valve, air box) with the equivalent part from Italian models.
- C. Grand Prix - Also considered part of the Series III family, GP models were first produced in Italy in 1968 and were easily recoginzable by their rectangular headlight. Other notable features were the black plastic taillight housing, black rubber body trim, and distinctively sleek side panels with a single black plastic grille on each side. Although very similar to their Italian predecessors, parts for Grand Prix models manufactured in India by Scooters India Ltd. (S.I.L.) are generally of lesser quality than the Italian equivalent. When this is the case the origin of the part will be stated in the catalog.
- D. Series II - Includes Li125, Li150, and TV175 models produced from 1960 to 1962. Li models came equipped with two saddle seats, TV models with a long bench seat and hydraulic dampeners bolted to the fork legs. Distinguishable traits of all Series 2's include a round speedometer and a headlight unit mounted on the headset casting, and a steering lock directly under the ignition key switch or kill button on the back side of the headset. Some body parts and trim are becoming scarce, otherwise most parts are available.
- E. Series I Li125 & Li150 - Produced from 1958 to 1959. Visible traits include a round speedometer, headlight mounted on the horncasting, and a steering lock on the front of the headset. Early versions with all Pre-mod features are rare, and their most obvious trait is an air intake system which feeds through the frame tube from behind the rear seat. Parts availability for the more common later versions with separate air box between the fuel tnak and toolbox is similar to Series II.
- F. Series I TV175 - Produced from 1957 to 1959. Outwardly similar to Ser.I Li but with the addition of dampeners on the front forks, a single bench seat, floor mats instead of strips, and small air vents in the lower front corners of the side panels. All TV1's were frame breathers, and the engines are radically different from any other model. Obsolete parts include the rear hub and some electrical parts.
- G. J Range - Notable for their Vespa-like pressed sheet steel monocoque body (the first Lambrettas ever produced without a tubular frame), and 3.00 x 10" tires; includes J50, J100 Cento (pronounced chen-toe) and J125, all with three speed transmissions, and the J125 Starstream, which has a four speed transmission. New Italian body panels and many parts specific to the Starstream are becoming rare.
- H. Mk.I LD 125 – 1952 & '53 models. Features are: side panels with two chrome trimmed port holes (1952) or a single kidney bean shaped chrome grille ('53), a trap door in the right side panel for access to the carburator, aluminum cylinder shrouding, a fuel cap which is offset from centerline of frame, and a carburator which attaches dierectly to a stub cast onto the cylinder (rather than the separate intake manifold on later models). Some parts unique to the Mk.I are very difficult to find.
- I. Mk.II LD 125/150 – 1954 to '56 models. The fuel cap is still between the seats, but now in the centerline of the frame, a small tool box located behind the legshield and housing a round speedometer, and exposed aluminum handlebars with twin shifting cables. '54 models have chromed silencer integral with tailpipe. "J" shaped kickstart lever curls up from under floorboards. Electric start models also have kickstarter fitted. Parts can be scarce (especially body parts), though many hard to find items are now being reproduced.
- J. Mk.III LD 125/150 - 1957 to '59 models. Easily distinguishable from earlier LD's by the toolbox door which hinges upward in the frame behind the rear seat, chrome plated steel handlebars covered by an aluminum casting which houses a rectangular speedometer, and the epicyclic kickstart with straight pedal standing nearly upright. Electric start models were not fitted with a kickstarter. Parts availability similar to Mk.II models; body parts and some electrical components are very difficult to find.
- K. 125/150D-Up to 1953 - 125cc, 1954 and later-150cc. Exposed engine and fuel tank (no side panels), short legshield, unskirted motorcycle style front and rear fenders. Front and rear fenders and legshields are very rare. The floorboard strips and most rubber parts have been reproduced.
PRE-MOD/POST-MOD EXPLAINEDScooters themselves are not considered pre-mod or post-mod; only individual parts are. All scooters except the first few and last few off the assembly line of any given model are made up of a mix of pre-mod and post-mod parts.
PISTON AND TOP END
RUSTED PISTON REMOVAL
- Pour a penetrating fluid such as Liquid Wrench or WD-40 into the cylinder and let it stand for AMDAYCS (as many days as you can stand). If the piston is near the bottom of the stroke, the fluid will run right out the open exhaust port, so you may have to remove the exhaust system and block off the port.
- After soaking for AMDAYCS, remove the head, carburator, and exhaust system.
- Check to see where the piston is in the cylinder.
a. If it is midway in the stroke, proceed to #4.
b. If it is at bottom dead center (piston crown even with bottom of fully exposed exhaust port), you will need to raise the cylinder and place two even sized blocks of hardwood or soft metal such as untmepered aluminum or brass between the base of the cylinder and the engine case.
c. If it is at exactly top dead center (this is very rare), go no further with these instructions and start drilling holes and breaking away the piston until you can remove it.
- Get as large a piece of thick walled metal tubing as will fit in the bore. This will make contact with the piston on its outer edges rather than in the center, which can distort the piston crown outwards and actually lock the piston it tighter! Check that there are no residual pools of penetrating fluid or other flammable materials nearby, then heat the cylinder with a propane torch. Get it evenly hot all over, and start persuading the piston by striking the piece of tubing with a large hammer. Hopefully it will start moving. As it gets near bottom dead center, you may need to resort to #3.b above if it is still tight as it reaches the bottom of the stroke.
PISTON SHIMMINGIf you're using a crank with extra side clearance between the bottom end of the rod and inner sufaces of the crank webs you must use shims. Standard Li, TV, and Indian GP cranks have minimal side clearance (about .010" or 0.25mm) and do not require shims. SX and Italian GP cranks have much more side clearance (about 2mm), and require two 1mm shims to center the rod between the crank webs, one on each side of the small end of the rod. The clearance between the shims and the inside surface of the piston should be about 0.2mm-0.3mm (.008"-.012"). The rod is 20mm wide at the small end and the shims are 1mm thick, so the total width between the piston bosses should be 22.2mm-22.3mm. If the piston you are using has less than 22.3mm width inside the bosses then it must be machined. If the amount of material to be removed is minimal it can be done with a hand file.
A CYLINDER HEAD PRIMER
The fact that a two stroke engine has no valves does not mean that the design of the cylinder head is not important. In fact, because a two stroke fires on every stroke, the compression ratio is crucial if overheating is to be avoided.
The photo to the left shows a stock GP200 head. The oval shaped recess is the combustion chamber and the circular area surrounding it is the squish band. The purpose of the squish band is to force the fuel mixture which is furthest from the spark plug into the combustion chamber, where it can be burned more efficiently.
In the photo on the right the combustion chamber has been filled with a measured amount of oil to determine its volume. Compression ratio is simply the relationship between the amount of space in the combustion chamber and the amount of space in the cylinder (not including the head volume) when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke. There is some deliberation about "corrected" compression ratios, but this only comes into play when a major change in exhaust port timing is made.
Some people make the mistake of measuring head volume including the squish band area by lying the head on a plate of glass and filling the head with oil through the spark plug hole. Because all Lambretta pistons have a domed crown, this will give a false reading because at top dead center the dome protrudes past the top of the cylinder and into the squish band area of the head. A while back we saw a brand new head that we had reprofiled for 10:1 compression for sale on eBay, advertised as having 7:1 compression. The seller had probably measured the volume including the squish band area. One last note about measuring head volume is that the most accurate way to do it is with the head installed on the engine and the piston at top dead center. Because we machine many heads without the advantage of having the customer's complete engine, we are very careful about measuring volume as accurately as possible. We have found that because the surface of the oil sits level in the combustion chamber when filled as in the picture above, the amount of oil that would be displaced by the dome of the piston and into the squish band area at top dead center in the 'real world' test of bolting the head up to the engine is an accurate approximation.
Kurt Lingier, president of the Lambretta Club of Belgium, was kind enough to offer this drawing which illustrates this theory of measurement. The black line is the imaginary fill level of the oil when measuring a separate head. The blue space at point B equals approximately the yellow space at point A. Thus measuring the combustion chamber with the oil method on a separate head should give a nearly identical reading as the same head fixed to the engine with piston at TDC.
The rule of thumb we follow for compression ratios is that for 91 octane pump fuel in North America, 10:1 is the maximum safe compression ratio. For 94-95 octane pump fuels found overseas 11.5:1 to 12:1 is fine, and for racing fuel of 100 octane or more the upper limit is in the 14:1 range depending on many engine variables such as whether the engine is air or liquid cooled, exhaust system design, RPM range, etc.
A few more things to consider regarding squish bands and psi readings:1. Squish tolerance is very important and is generally agreed to be best set at .75-1.5mm, depending on a few factors such as the rpm range of the engine, bore and stroke dimensions, etc. If the squish is too small, the piston can actually hit the head at high rpm due to the rod and piston stretching as they reach tdc. Squish clearance can be checked by putting a strand of solder down the spark plug hole, turning the engine over to smash the solder at TDC, and then measuring the thickness of the smashed solder. A large bore and stroke engine with heavy moving parts and a long connecting rod is the most likely to have this problem if it is set up with too small of a squish band and revs much higher than stock. Most scooter engines in the 150cc-225cc range do well with a 1mm squish setting.
2. It follows that the only proper way to make large changes in compression is to actually alter the combustion chamber dimensions. Of course small changes in compression can be had by adding or removing gaskets, but only by staying within the proper squish tolerance.
3. Reading an engine's psi at kickover speed does not take into account the charge that is lost out the exhaust port at this low speed. An engine with a larger (in particular taller) port will give a lower reading than an otherwise identical engine with a shorter port (i.e. less port timing). A well designed expansion chamber system actually stuffs some of this lost charge back into the engine right before the port closes, so it follows that this engine may need to run slightly lower compression than a similar engine with a stock exhaust system, or run higher octane fuel. PSI readings are not useless, but they don't always correlate between engines.
WRIST PIN INSTALLATIONPut the wrist pin in the freezer for a while, warm up the piston in the oven or with a propane torch, and the pin will slide right in. You can slide it in until it's just starting to protrude into the space where the wrist pin goes, position it on the connecting rod, and use the puller to pull it the rest of the way through.
POOR RUNNING & HARD STARTING
RESTORATION QUESTIONSOur labor rate is $80 per hour. Complete restorations to factory original specs run $4500-$7000 if we do everything including paint and bodywork, re-plating, cables, wiring, motor rebuild and all disassembly and reassembly. Of course the price varies with the number of parts needed and the quality of finish desired. If the scooter will be a daily driver and a show quality finish is not needed then the price can go down. Go to Restoration Page!
REVIVING AN OLD SCOOTER
WHAT TO DO WHEN YOUR SCOOTER HAS NOT BEEN RIDDEN FOR SIX MONTHS OR MOREIf your scooter has been sitting for a while (six months or more), there are a few things you'll need to do to get it back in good running condition:
- Dismantle and clean the carburator. If you're careful you probably won't need to replace any gaskets. Just make note of where everything goes, dip all the metal parts in carb cleaner, and follow that up with a blast of quick drying carb spray ( I recommend Berryman's B-12) before you reassemble it.
- Drain the gas from the tank and take off the fuel valve. Turn it through its three positions and check that it is flowing freely in the "on" and "reserve" positions and shutting off in the "off" position. If it won't flow, you may have to take it apart to clean it out internally, or replace it if it's really bad off. Clean any debris out of the screen, run a little fresh gas through the tank to wash it out, and re-install the valve. Put some gas in the tank mixed to the correct ratio.
- Take out the spark plug, take the plug cap off the end of the wire, and check for spark by kicking the motor over with the end of the plug wire about 1/4" from the engine case. If there is good spark, spray a little WD40 down the spark plug hole, and fit a new plug of the correct type gapped to .020".
- Drain the transmission oil and refill with the proper amount of fresh oil.
- Check the fluid level in the battery (if your scooter has one), and add distilled water if necessary. You will probably have to charge it up, and if the scooter has been sitting much longer than six months you may need to replace it.
- 1) Dismantle and clean the carburator. If you're careful you probably won't need to replace any gaskets. Just make note of where everything goes, dip all the metal parts in carb cleaner, and follow that up with a blast of quick drying carb spray ( I recommend Berryman's B-12) before you reassemble it.
- 2) Drain the gas from the tank and take off the fuel valve. Turn it through its three positions and check that it is flowing freely in the "on" and "reserve" positions and shutting off in the "off" position. If it won't flow, you may have to take it apart to clean it out internally, or replace it if it's really bad off. Clean any debris out of the screen, run a little fresh gas through the tank to wash it out, and re-install the valve. Put some gas in the tank mixed to the correct ratio.
- 3) Take out the spark plug, take the plug cap off the end of the wire, and check for spark by kicking the motor over with the end of the plug wire about 1/4" from the engine case. If there is good spark, spray a little WD40 down the spark plug hole, and fit a new plug of the correct type gapped to .020".
- 4) Drain the transmission oil and refill with the proper amount of fresh oil.
- 5) Check the fluid level in the battery (if your scooter has one), and add distilled water if necessary. You will probably have to charge it up, and if the scooter has been sitting much longer than six months you may need to replace it.
OK, you're ready to give it a try. Once the scooter starts, it will probably smoke a lot at first, and it may need the choke on until it warms up. If everything sounds OK, take it for a ride. The smoke should decrease as you ride it, and if you're lucky you'll be be back on the road without any problems.
OK, you're ready to give it a try. Once the scooter starts, it will probably smoke a lot at first, and it may need the choke on until it warms up. If everything sounds OK, take it for a ride. The smoke should decrease as you ride it, and if you're lucky you'll be be back on the road without any problems.
If your scooter has been sitting for a while (six months or more), there are a few things you'll need to do to get it back in good running condition:
SHIPPING SCOOTERS OR ENGINES
SHIPPING YOUR ENGINE
- It is best to pack it in a wooden crate. Make the crate large enough to allow for an average of 2" of packing material all the way around.
- Protect the engine with high density foam or other suitable packing material. Pay extra attention to these parts of the engine which are easily broken: cylinder fins, magneto flange, brake shoe back plate area, and flywheel fins. Do not ship the engine with the carburator attached. Put it in a separate small box inside the large box or a very sturdy box with plenty of substance
- If you use a cardboard box, wrap the engine in an old blanket or sleeping bag, and line the inside of the box all the way around with wood or several layers of stiff cardboard. Mark the box clearly as "Fragile".
SHIPPING YOUR SCOOTERThe most economical way to ship your scooter is by Forward Air. However, they only do depot to depot so you will have to find the depot nearest you and bring the scooter to them already crated. Expect to pay around $200 in freight costs if you can keep the crate dimensions to a minimum. When it arrives here we will charge you $40 to pick it up from their depot and another $40 to take it back them when we return the scooter to you.
WHEELS, BRAKES AND SUSPENSION
REAR HUB REMOVAL LIThe nut is a standard right hand thread. It's probably torqued on at 110 lbs., so you may need to remove it with a pneumatic impact gun if you can't get it off with hand tools. Once the nut is off bolt the puller to the hub and torque the center lead screw against the axle. If you don't have the puller and the hub has been removed recently you can try to persuade it off with a rubber mallet from the back side. Leave the rim and tire bolted on and inflated and you can smack it with the mallet without damaging anything. It helps to have the rear wheel in the air (the original jack stand tools works well for this) so that you can spin the it while you do this. If it won't budge with some moderate effort (you don't want to bend the rim), you will have to use the puller.
BRAKE SHOE & HUB FITTING PROBLEMS
The latest GP engine cases have a defect in the location of the brake shoe pivot pins. They are further apart than they should be, causing the brake shoes to not fit properly inside the drum unless modifications are made. Many people just remove some material from the linings of the shoes, but this is only a temporary fix until the next pair of shoes is installed. The best fix is to machine 1mm off the total thickness of the brake cam (.5mm each side). This is best done on a mill, but a disc sander or die grinder will do the job if care is taken to keep the surfaces flat and parallel. Remember that there is no difference in the inner diameter of the brake drum surface between GP rear hubs and all other Series 1/2/3 hubs, nor is there a difference in the working o.d. of GP brake shoes when used with a GP cam when compared to Li/SX brake shoes and an Li/SX cam. In other words, as long as you match the cam to the shoes you are using, you can use any type of drum you wish.
SPEEDO GEAR REMOVALThe speedo gear is pressed onto the front hub. You need to use a puller, commonly called a bearing splitter, to remove it. Find a socket which is large enough to make contact with the hub without falling down into the bearing passage, but small enough to let the speedo gear pass over it. Put this socket under the center lead screw of the puller. On drum brake hubs there is a ring underneath the gear which you can grab with the puller. Both parts will come off together. On disc brake hubs this ring is not present, and you will have to grab the lower edge of the metal casing of the gear without damaging the gear's plastic teeth.